Using Material and Energy Flow Analysis to Estimate Future Energy Demand at the City Level
Cities undergoing rapid growth encounter tremendous challenges, not only in terms of providing services to meet demand, but also in ensuring that development occurs in a sustainable way. This research evaluates the potential contribution of the material and energy flow analysis framework to predicting future energy flows and corresponding CO2 emissions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The research presents a generic material and energy flow analysis model and applies it to the housing stock in Riyadh to estimate future energy demand and to assess associated effects. As the country starts to adopt sustainability measures and plan its transition from a fossil fuel-based energy system towards a renewable-based energy system, an understanding of future energy flows will allow early recognition of potential environmental impacts and provide information to enable accurate predictions of future demand for resources.