CHAPTER 1 - Introduction
Green chemistry has become the important philosophy since the 21−st century. Increased global competition has forced industries to look at green routes for achieving efficient manufacturing processes. As a result, chemical and allied industries have taken it seriously due to societal and governmental pressures with respect to environmental issues. Measuring the greenness of a process is a very difficult task. Several indicators are now being defined to measure the process characteristics. There are several levels in the green chemistry hierarchy, and each level is interested in certain indicators. Besides considering an ideal process and product, one needs to include an ideal user as well. The user can support the green chemistry initiative by being responsible in product selection, usage, and disposal. A product recycle could lead to five times more employment than a remediation operation. Of the four Rs—Reduce, Recycle, Reuse, and Remediate—the first two are part of the green chemistry principles. The third R describes a responsible user; and the fourth R should be the last option. This chapter outlines the latest developments in green chemistry and green process technologies, with relevant industrial examples.