Constructing physical input–output tables for environmental modeling and accounting: Framework and illustrations
A physical input–output table (PIOT) provides a framework in which all the physical flows associated with an economy can be recorded. This makes it a valuable tool for environmental–economic modeling and accounting. During the 1990's PIOTs were constructed for a number of countries. Subsequently, the PIOT and related physical supply and use tables have been taken up in the System of Environmental and Economic Accounting [UN (United Nations), 2003. System of Environmental and Economic Accounting. United Nations, New York]. This paper reviews PIOTs for the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Italy, Finland and the European Union. These studies applied the ‘basic’ and ‘extended’ PIOT frameworks. This paper elaborates these frameworks with packaging, residuals (wastes and emissions), recycling and stock changes, in order to create a ‘full’ PIOT. The production process of the extended and full PIOT is split into structural and auxiliary production processes. Modeling applications and ways of deriving environmentally relevant information from the full PIOT are illustrated using a numerical example.