Construction and demolition waste generation in cities in India: an integrated approach

This paper quantifies construction and demolition waste (C&DW) generation rate in Indian cities using bottom-up material flow analysis approach. A dynamic model was applied to different classes of cities in India to investigate how C&DW generation rate varies across different classes of cities. The data on construction and demolition activities in different classes of cities were estimated from information reported in secondary literature. The results show that urban areas in India generated over 150 million tonnes of C&DW in 2016, and almost 50% of waste was generated in small to medium towns. The paper concludes with discussion on opportunities for recycling of C&DW and closing the material loops in Indian cities.