Wading past assumptions: Gender dimensions of climate change adaptation in coastal communities of the Philippines

Sustainable production of fish and seafood products contributes to achieving the economic, social, and environmental goals in fisheries. Different sustainability strategies are applied to achieve these three goals. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the status and implementation of various sustainable fishery management strategies in the Philippines over the past 20 years. We identified various management themes and the extent these themes are related to economic, social and environmental sustainability goals using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) and text mining. Six sustainability management themes were identified. The analysis shows that overall, the sustainability management themes appear to be socio-economic in nature based on the relative occurrences of indicators belonging to the three sustainability goals. When comparing the strength of the three sustainability goals in each management theme, the social goal appears to be most prominent in four management themes, the economic goal in one theme, and a balance of the three sustainability goals in another theme. Furthermore, this study shows which fishery management themes are most (dis-)similar based on clustering. Policy makers and other fishery management bodies can use these insights to optimize the sustainability goals in fisheries by not only relying on a single management theme in each fishery, by improving focus on large scale fishers, by incorporating underexplored sustainability indicators, and by adapting current trends and proven-to-be effective management themes.
This systematic review article focuses on the adaptation strategies of Asian fishermen toward climate change impacts. Generally, the fact that climate change is not a new phenomenon has attracted scholars to conduct numerous relevant studies. Unfortunately, most past researches were not from the perspectives of social science of the Asian's community. Hence, the present study reviewed a considerable amount of past studies on the act of adjusting with environmental change among the Asian fishermen which is known as one of the communities that are highly dependent on nature stability. Meanwhile, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was adopted for the review of the current research which utilised two main journal databases, namely Scopus and Web of Science. Accordingly, the searching efforts resulted in a total of 18 articles that can be analysed systematically. Most importantly, the review managed to formulate five main themes, namely livelihood diversification, social, physical infrastructure, awareness-knowledge-experience, and conservation and enforcement based on the thematic analyses. Overall, further analysis of the five themes resulted in the establishment of a total of 21 sub-themes. Finally, a number of recommendations were presented at the end of this research for the reference of future scholars.
In recent years, a considerable amount of studies published locally which focused on the influence of age on climate change ability. Accordingly, this has driven the present study to achieve its main objective which is to compare the adaptation ability between youth and older fishermen. The current research is quantitative in nature; hence, a survey was conducted on a total of 259 youth and older fishermen residing in different states of Malaysia, namely Pulau Pinang, Terengganu, Johor, and Kedah. The present study managed to conclude a unique and important result which stated that youth and older fishermen within the context of Malaysia have an equally strong adaptation ability. In regard to this matter, a number of recommendations were presented at the end of this paper with the hope that it can act as a basis for future scholars to conduct more climate change related studies.

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